fredag 30 januari 2015

the calculations

the calculations can be either the test points given in this method or test points given in EN 14511.  
The maximum heating capacity, Pmax, at the different climates is calculated from the heating capacity data obtained in the test. It is not possible to choose the size of the required heat load for the building, but is given by the model for each bin level based on the capacity of the heat pump. To meet the lower heat load requirements at the different bin levels, the heat pump is assumed to work in part load condition. The heat pump does not have to be tested in part load operation; instead the model uses a degradation factor, Cd, to calculate the COP when working in part load condition. Cd can either be obtained from tests or a default value, Cd=0.15, can be used.  
For fixed capacity units the default is COPmin= 0.89*COP at power output Phpmin=0.5*Php. For staged capacity units the default is COPmin= 0.975*COP at power output Phpmin=0.5*Php.  For variable capacity units the default is COPmin= COP at power output Phpmin=0.4*Php.
It is optional to choose whether the heat pump operates with night set back or not. The bin assumes constant night temperatures during night set back to +1°C, +6°C and 0°C for each climate respectively

onsdag 28 januari 2015


Sammanfattning I denna rapport redovisas de delar av projektet ”Beräkningsmetoder för årsvärmefaktor för värmepumpsystem för jämförelse, systemval och dimensionering” som SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut svarat för. Projektet har genomförts av SP och KTH. KTH:s del av projektet redovisas i en separat rapportdel. I en inledande del av projektet har förberedelser för ett IEA samarbete, samt gemensam övergripande projektplanering tillsammans med industriparterna utförts. IEA-projektet har godkänts att starta av styrelsen för IEA Heat Pump Programme, och ett första inledande möte har hållits. SP har koordinerat samt sammanställt resultat av fältmätningar. Väl genomförda fältmätningar är en förutsättning för validering av olika beräkningsalgoritmer. Sammanställningen visar att det finns ett flertal utförda fältmätningar i Sverige under de senaste 20 åren, men få har gjorts med SPF som fokus, utan ofta har mätningarna gjorts med syfte att studera en viss teknikförändring, eller andra faktorer. Det har inte under de senaste 10 åren utförts någon stor mätning på värmepumpar liknande de välkända Fraunhofermätningarna eller FAVA-studien i Schweiz. Den enda studie som syftat till att mäta SPF är den som SP utfört. Detta kan ses som en brist i ett land där värmepumpar har ett så stort genomslag för uppvärmningen av bostäder

måndag 26 januari 2015

Human occupants

Human occupants of the building contribute sensible heat according to their activity. From Reference 1, 200 Btu/hr per person is estimated for light activity.  For two people in the building, this gives a heat gain of
                              q = 2 (200) = 400 Btu/hr
Adding all the heat gains from conduction and internal sources gives
                             Total sensible load Qs  =   35274 Btu/hr
Human occupants also contribute to the latent heat gain in the building.  For light activity people produce a latent gain of about 180 Btu/hr per person so this heat is                               q = 2 (180) = 360 Btu/hr
The assumed infiltration of 20 cubic foot per minute of outside air brings latent heat into the building which is given by equation 9 as

onsdag 21 januari 2015

This procedure

This procedure is followed: •Check if air is correctly distributed to all the occupied rooms of the building. •Inspectthe air filtration equipment. •Inspectthe refrigeration coils. •Check central heatequipmentand refrigeration (including humidity regulators).
Inspection of the ducts is done through existing openings,such as access doors,or grid openings, inspection panels etc.
Visual inspection is done first:If mould or any ‘unusual’material is detected,samples are gathered for further analysis.Inspection openings mustbe closed before proceeding with cleaning.
b) Ductopenings Regardless of building type and insulation material used with the duct,openings should be made to ensurethe bestair tightness when cleaning operations arefinished.
c) Ductcleaning methods Several methods are used to clean insulated ducts.The most common ones, also considered the mosteffective,are briefly described in this handbook: •Contactvacuum method •Air sweep method •Mechanical brush method

tisdag 20 januari 2015


This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class A digital device,
pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection
against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a commercial environment. The
equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in
accordance with the instruction manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of this equipment in a residential area is likely to cause harmful interference in which case
the user will be required to correct the interference at his own expense.
Shielded interconnect cables must be employed with this equipment to insure compliance with the
pertinent RF emission limits governing this device.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by Adam Equipment could void the user's authority
to operate the equipment

måndag 12 januari 2015

The heating, ventilation

The heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex
system installed in a house and is responsible for a substantial component of the total house
energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired comfort and will run efficiently.
Right-sizing of an HVAC system is the selection of equipment and the design of the air
distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Rightsizing
the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads
on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation;
the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This strategy
guideline discusses the information needed to design the air distribution system to deliver the
proper amount of conditioned air to a space. Heating and cooling loads are dependent upon the
building location, sighting, and the construction of the house, whereas the equipment selection
and the air distribution design are dependent upon the loads and each other.

torsdag 8 januari 2015

Documents to be Submitted

Documents to be Submitted
The following documents are to be submitted to GL for approval. To facilitate a smooth and efficient approval
process they should be submitted electronically via GLOBE. In specific cases and following prior
agreement with GL they can also be submitted in paper form in triplicate. GL reserve its right to ask for
supplementary copies, if deemed necessary:
 ventilation and air condition scheme – accommodation and service spaces
 ventilation system machinery spaces and technical spaces
 ventilation system cargo holds
 details of fire closures and weather tight closures
 details of duct penetrations
 approval information (flexible ducts, fire dampers, duct penetrations)
 principal electrical supply, control and monitoring
 emergency stops of fans

onsdag 7 januari 2015

International standards

International standards
For design and construction of ventilation systems the following international standards are recommended
as guidance. The last edition of each standard should be applied.
 ISO 7547, Shipbuilding – Air-conditioning and ventilation of accommodation spaces on board ships
– Design conditions and basis of calculations
 ISO 8861, Shipbuilding – Engine room ventilation in diesel-engined ships – Design requirements
and basis of calculations
 ISO 8862, Air-conditioning and ventilation of machinery control rooms on board ships – Design conditions
and basis of calculations
 ISO 8864, Shipbuilding – Air conditioning and ventilation of wheelhouse on board ships – Design
conditions and basis of calculations
 ISO 9785, Ships and marine technology – Ventilation of cargo spaces where vehicles with internal
combustion are driven
 ISO 9943, Shipbuilding – Ventilation and air-treatment of galleys and pantries with cooking appliances

tisdag 6 januari 2015

If duct cleaning

If duct cleaning is determined to be the best option:
1. Hire a duct cleaning contractor who is a member in good standing of the National Air Duct
Cleaning Association. Duct cleaning companies must meet strict requirements to become NADCA
members. Among those requirements, all NADCA Members must have certified Air System Cleaning
Specialists (ASCS) on staff, who have taken and passed the NADCA Certification Examination.
2. PROTECT building occupants during and after duct cleaning:
Place a filter over supply and return grills to capture dust when HVAC system is placed back into
service after cleaning.
Perform duct cleaning during hours when the building is unoccupied, such as nights and
Use containment barriers and proper ventilation equipment, such as “negative‐air” machines
equipped with high‐efficiency filters.
Avoid the use of biocides and sealants. Even EPA‐registered biocides may pose health risks,
including eye, nose, and skin irritation.
No biocides are currently EPA‐registered for use on fiberglass duct board or fiberglass‐lined
ducts. Both the EPA and NADCA recommend replacing wet or moldy fiberglass duct material.

måndag 5 januari 2015


PREVENTION of duct contamination is KEY to avoiding problems
Follow these recommendations to avoid the need for costly duct cleaning:
Perform routine preventive maintenance of HVAC systems, by complying with manufacturer
schedules for changing HVAC filters and cleaning coils and other components.
During building renovation, seal ductwork to prevent construction dust and debris from entering
the HVAC system.
New ductwork frequently contains oil and debris. Before new ductwork is connected to the air
handling system, it should be inspected for cleanliness and cleaned if necessary.
Maintain good housekeeping in occupied spaces.
Ensure that air intakes are located away from contaminant sources.
Consider routine inspections of ductwork. The National Air Duct Cleaning Association (NADCA)’s
standard, “Assessment, Cleaning and Restoration of HVAC Systems – ACR 2006,” recommends that
HVAC systems be visually inspected for cleanliness at regular intervals, depending on the building
use. For healthcare facilities, the standard recommends annual inspections of air handling units, as
well as supply and return ductwork

söndag 4 januari 2015

component. BEFORE hiring a duct cleaning contractor, make sure you can answer “YES” to all of these questions:

When is duct cleaning appropriate?
Although the value of regular duct cleaning remains
questionable, the U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) and indoor air specialists agree that
duct cleaning (or, in some cases, duct replacement) is
appropriate in the following circumstances:
Permanent or persistent water damage in ducts
Slime or microbial growth observed in ducts
Debris build‐up in ducts that restricts airflow
Dust discharging from supply diffusers
Offensive odors originating in ductwork or HVAC
BEFORE hiring a duct cleaning contractor,
make sure you can answer “YES” to all of
these questions:
9 Are there known or observed
contaminants in the ductwork?
9 Have you confirmed the type and
quantity of contaminants based on
testing or observation?
9 Are the contaminants (or their by‐
products) capable of entering occupied
9 Have you identified and controlled the
source of the contaminant?
9 Will the duct cleaning effectively
remove, inactivate, or neutralize the
9 Have you considered other options,
such as removal of affected ductwork?
9 Is duct cleaning the only (or most
effective) solution?
In all cases, duct cleaning should be undertaken only after the source of the contaminant has been
identified and controlled. Otherwise, the problem will not go away. For instance, the water source

lördag 3 januari 2015

Latest Findings

Latest Findings
Despite more than two decades of research, there is still not enough evidence to draw solid conclusions
about duct cleaning’s benefits on indoor air quality, occupants’ health, HVAC system performance, or
energy savings, according to a 2010 review of scientific studies on duct cleaning.1 The review did find
clear evidence that ductwork can be contaminated with dust and can act as a reservoir for microbial
growth under normal operating conditions. Yet, even when duct cleaning was extremely efficient at
removing contaminants within ducts, the
effectiveness of reducing indoor air pollutants was
highly variable, and in many cases, post‐cleaning
levels of contaminants were higher than pre‐
cleaning levels.

fredag 2 januari 2015


In recent years, ventilation duct cleaning has grown into a huge industry, in response to surging public
concern about indoor air pollution. The industry claims that cleaning ductwork can improve indoor air
quality, control molds and other allergens, enhance heating, ventilating, and air‐ conditioning (HVAC)
system performance, and reduce energy costs. Yet there is little scientific evidence to support these
claims, and poor duct cleaning practices can actually cause or increase air quality complaints. This fact
sheet provides guidance on when duct cleaning may be appropriate, how to protect building occupants
during duct cleaning, and how to prevent the conditions that drive facility managers to undertake this
costly procedure.