onsdag 25 februari 2015

A utility

A utility’s view The Swedish utility Vattenfall operates in the most mature heat pump market (heating mainly) in Europe. That is not a coincidence. The company is one of the energy suppliers that continued stimulating the use of heat pumps after the deregulation in 1996. The key to their heat pump success was that they marketed heat pumps within their solar energy programme.
Electricity offered by Vattenfall in 1999 was mainly from nuclear and hydropower, increasing the environmental benefits resulting from use of the heat pumps. In the initial part of the 20-year period they have worked with heat pumps, Vattenfall was involved in equipment testing and (re)designing. Later they focussed on retaining customers

fredag 20 februari 2015


Thermoroad – Applied Peltier technology Netherlands - Road asphalt may find another use in the near future. By applying Peltier elements in the road surface and underground, small-scale electricity can be generated. Highway tests in the Netherlands are being conducted to prove the technical concept. In summer, the high temperature in the asphalt layer and the low temperature of the groundwater create a voltage potential, which produces electricity in the Peltier elements. In winter, the system works the other way around. Five U-shape copper prefab elements containing cables, groundwater pipes and other hardware have been installed across the road. The Peltier elements are mounted on the copper elements. A top layer of 6 mm highconductivity, water-resistant asphalt protects the energy system. The system produces 20 kWh of electricity per m2 of road annually, as the result of an expected temperature differential of 2 to 10°C. Source: Techniek 28 June 2002 (in Dutch) Micro CHP emerging Japan - Honda Motor Co. has released information saying that it has entered the final stage of development of a compact, home-use cogeneration unit, scheduled to go on sale from March 2003. The unit’s compact design (640 mm x 380 mm x 940 mm) was achieved using an efficient layout, combining the world’s smallest natural gas engine, developed especially for this use, with a compact, lightweight power generation system employing the company’s sine wave inverter technology to ensure electrical output on a par with commercial power sources. The driver is a 4-stroke, water-cooled, single-cylinder engine. A 3-way catalyst and oxygen feedback control is employed to reduce NOx emissions. The unit has a thermal output of more than 3 kW and an electrical output of 1 kW, achieving an overall efficiency of 85%. Source: Honda Press Information Energy-efficient distillation Netherlands - A Dutch consortium of research institutes, contractors and chemical process industry has been formed to develop highly energy efficient distillation columns within the next 4 years. Traditional distillation column designs are tall and high. By integrating the upper half of the column in the lower part, the size can be reduced substantially and energy savings of 60-90% could be possible compared to traditional designs. When compared to mechanical vapour recompression columns, energy savings of up to 50% can be achieved. The so-called Heat-Integrated Distillation Column (HIDiC) is also equipped with mechanical vapour recompression technology. Top vapour from the outer section is compressed and fed to the inner high-pressure section of the column; se

måndag 16 februari 2015

General Information.

General Information. • References to Specific Items—Reference in these specifications to any article, device, product, material, fixture, form or type construction by name, make, or catalog number shall not be construed as limiting competition or an endorsement of a manufacturer. These references are only intended to establish minimum standards of quality. • Codes—The QCN member is responsible for compliance with locally adopted public codes or regulations affecting work under these specifications. Where local codes or regulations require greater standards than those required in this section, local codes govern. Where local codes or regulations permit lower standards than those required by these specifications, the standards contained herein govern. TVA does not assume any responsibility for determining, interpreting, or enforcing compliance with local codes and regulations. In addition, TVA does not interpret or determine local codes and regulations. • Materials and Appliances—Unless otherwise stipulated, the QCN member must furnish all labor, equipment, tools, materials, and services necessary for the execution and completion of all work. All equipment and materials shall be new and of the quality specified in these standards.

fredag 13 februari 2015

Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps

Packaged Terminal Heat Pumps (PTHP), Self-Contained Through-The-Wall Heat Pumps (SCTTWHP), Free Delivery Split Heat Pumps (FDSHP), and Window Heat Pump Systems (WHP). The following subsections do not apply to the above-named systems: Equipment Requirements, item 1; Condensate Piping, item 3; Indoor Thermostat, and Auxiliary Electric Heaters. The minimum air flow requirement of 400 cubic feet per minute per 12,000 Btuh in Duct System Design, Modification, and Installation section, item 1, shall not apply. All other sections of these standards remain applicable unless otherwise noted. 1. Free-delivery split heat pumps, self-contained through-the-wall heat pumps, packaged terminal heat pumps, and window heat pump systems are designed to deliver conditioned air to the space without the use of ductwork. Self-contained through-the-wall heat pumps and packaged terminal heat pumps are designed to be installed through an exterior wall. Window heat pump systems are designed primarily for use in window installations. Free-delivery split heat pumps are split-type, free delivery heat pumps that may consist of one or more indoor units. The indoor units are designed to be attached to an indoor wall or ceiling. 2. The auxiliary electric heater for these types of heat pumps shall be provided by the heat pump manufacturer within the unit cabinet or fan coil section as part of the heat pump and shall be controlled by the unit's indoor thermostat. 3. These types of heat pumps shall be installed and supported in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, subject to local building codes and standards. The installing QCN member shall be responsible for the complete installation of these systems, including the wall/window case. 4. Where ductwork is used, the duct design and installation shall be as recommended under Duct System Design, Modification, and Installation section. The only exception is where the heat pump manufacturer provides specific duct application and installation criteria for their equipment. In all cases, the duct design and installation shall be such that the system provides the amount of air flow across the indoor coil recommended in the manufacturer's specifications.

onsdag 11 februari 2015

Wet or Damp Existing Insulation

Wet or Damp Existing Insulation—Adequate attic ventilation shall be provided when the existing insulation is found to be wet or damp, and the insulation shall be allowed to dry prior to installing additional attic insulation. If the insulation fails to dry after a reasonable period of time, it shall be replaced. • Customer Responsibilities—The customer shall be responsible for seeing that preparation work such as repairing the ceiling, roof leaks, pipe leaks, vent leaks, removing objects stored in the attic, etc., is completed if failure to do so would adversely affect the installation of additional insulation. • Blocking Materials—Blocking materials shall be installed in accordance with the following requirements: − Mineral fiber batts shall not be placed on the narrow edge. − Sheet metal used as firestopping or blocking material shall be secured in place using nails, tacks, staples, or screws. − Gypsum board/sheetrock or wood shall be secured in place using nails or screws. When using these materials as blocking, the clearances to both the insulation and the blocking shall be maintained. − Blocking materials shall be installed so that their height is above that of any surrounding loosefill insulation material. • Clothes Dryer Vents —Clothes dryers shall be vented to the outside. • Plumbing and Other Pipes, etc.—Cracks and gaps around ceiling penetrations, such as plumbing, exhaust fans, etc., should be sealed prior to installing ceiling insulation. • Recessed Light Fixtures—Insulation shall not be installed within 3 inches of the sides of a recessed incandescent or fluorescent light fixture (including its wiring compartment and ballast), and insulation shall not be installed over the top of such fixtures. The 3-inch air space shall be provided by utilizing acceptable blocking material

måndag 9 februari 2015

Be custom-fitted

Be custom-fitted to each prime window opening to match the size and shape of the existing window opening  − Be installed in a vertical position only; sloped installations shall not be permitted − Be mounted on the interior side of the prime window opening to achieve an isolated air space between the two glazing materials of 3/4 inch minimum to 4 inches maximum − Be permanently attached to the prime window opening and provide a weather tight seal establishing an air tightness greater than that of the existing exterior prime window over which it is installed  Clearance must be allowed for prime window light operation, removal, and cleaning. Where the design of the prime window precludes mounting the storm window to cover the entire window opening, the installation must be accepted in advance by TVA and the customer.  When subframing materials are used for mounting interior applied, thermoplastic storm windows, subframes shall be permanently attached to the prime window opening or mounting surface with mechanical fasteners positioned on approximately 12-inch centers to provide a secure installation for the storm window assembly.  Subframes shall be effectively sealed to the prime window opening by a continuous bead of approved caulk. The sealant shall provide a permanent seal between the storm window assembly and the surrounding prime window opening.   Thermoplastic hook-and-loop mounting systems, such as Velcro, or equivalent, are not permitted.
Section 2C   01/16/2007
 A thermoplastic insert panel may be attached to its framing members by use of magnetic strips if the following conditions are met:  − The magnetic holding force of the magnetic strip shall be a minimum of 6-1/2 pounds per linear foot with a maximum of 10 percent variance at zero air gap around the window perimete

fredag 6 februari 2015

Determine system heating capacity

Determine system heating capacity.  System inspection should never be conducted within 48 hours of completion of soaker hose operation, and should not be conducted within one week of completion of soaker hose operation if the DXGS system is installed during the heating season.  Consult with the Quality Heat Pump Contractor to determine appropriate inspection time during heating season.  For heating capacity tests, the return air temperature should be between 65 degrees F. and 70 degrees F. (Major)
3)  3) Measure the compressor run current while in the heat mode.  The expected current readings should fall within the ranges as specified by the manufacturer. (Major)
4) The air flow shall be between 400 and 450 CFM per ton of capacity. (Major)
a) Determine heating capacity by using the following formula: Btuh = TD x 1.1 x CFM TD =  temperature difference between supply air and return air 1.1 = air properties constant CFM =  Cubic feet per minute air calculated, from funnel, temperature rise, or return air method
b) Verify that system capacity is + 10% of the equipment manufacturer's rating at the test conditions.
Section 2E   01/16/2007
Note:  If the heating capacity is low, this may be due to an unadjusted heating valve.  The Quality Heat Pump Contractor can adjust the heat valve before re-calculating the heating capacity.
5) Determine system cooling capacity. For cooling capacity tests, the return air temperature should be between 75 degrees F. and 80 degrees F. (Major)
6) Measure the compressor run current while in the heat mode.  The expected current readings should fall within the ranges as specified by the manufacturer. (Major)
7) The air flow shall be between 400 and 450 CFM per ton of capacity. (Major)

onsdag 4 februari 2015

Providing quality

Providing quality workmanship performed in a workman-like manner in compliance with all specifications listed in the program guidelines • Submitting a detailed invoice of the heat pump installation, which separates costs for the heat pump, ductwork, weatherization, extended warranty, programmable thermostat(s), electrical upgrades, and/or other applicable and acceptable costs • Practicing good business ethics and ensuring customer satisfaction to best of their ability, including leaving the premises in a “broom clean” condition after the installation • Honoring all service and warranty commitments made to customers Customer Responsibilities. Customers participating in the energy right Heat Pump Plan are responsible for: • Providing a copy of a deed or other evidence of ownership of the dwelling to meet a condition of financing eligibility under the program • Entering into an agreement with a member of the QCN for the installation of a heat pump • Notifying the distributor to arrange for the loan closing or inspection • Ensuring that the heat pump is installed to the customer’s satisfaction • Signing the Work Completion Form after the work is completed to the customer’s satisfaction

måndag 2 februari 2015

Charge procedure

Charge procedure 1.- De-pressurise the units. 2.- Drain the refrigerant. 3.- Clean out with dry nitrogen. 4.- Solder the tubes, with a dry nitrogen flow inside the tubes. 5.- Use low melting-point rods with a minimum silver content of 5% for soldering. 6.- Fill with 2 kg R-22 refrigerant to detect leaks. 7.- Empty out the refrigerant. 8.- Clean out with dry nitrogen. 9.- Create a vacuum down to 200 microns. 10.- Put in the refrigerant, using scales or a calibrated cylinder. The charge accuracy should be of 30 grams. The outdoor unit is fitted with pressure and temperature points on the connection outlets, for checking of over-heating and sub-cooling. Check that these values are around 5°C. Insulation of tubes The interconnection cooling tubing must be insulated. The insulation requires specific characteristics: it must be